Although there are many many Kurds in Turkey’s urban areas – most notably Istanbul – eastern Turkey remains the bastion of this country’s Kurdish, history, cultures and population. This is the largest portion of the ethnic Kurdish population that spans connected portions of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria, a region called “Kurdistan” by many. These four modern nation-states, all established after WWI, each have dealt with their Kurdish minorities in their own fashion. In Turkey, until about 15 years ago, all expression of Kurdishness was prohibited and Kurds were declared to be Mountain Turks. Although many aspects are improving and periods of relative tranquility are more prolonged, the Kurdish situation in Turkey remains volitile.